La Chine face au retrait américain en Afghanistan

PEKIN  – Depuis que le président Obama a décidé d'entamer le retrait des troupes américaines d'Afghanistan, la communauté internationale se demande quel rôle va jouer ou pas la Chine dans l'avenir de ce pays ravagé par la guerre. Car la Chine n'est pas seulement un voisin de l'Afghanistan, mais la principale puissance montante de la planète - une grande puissance, ainsi que l'a déclaré en juin Mike Mullen, le chef d'état-major interarmes américain.

Si la Chine décide de soutenir le gouvernement du président afghan Hamid Karzai, elle ne cherchera pas à tirer un avantage immédiat du retrait américain. Malgré les milliards de dollars qu'elle a investis pour le développement des ressources naturelles de l'Afghanistan, il est peut probable qu'elle s'implique plus largement dans l'avenir du pays.

Dès le début, la guerre américaine en Afghanistan a été vivement controversée en Chine ; c'est notamment pour cela qu'elle est réticente à jouer un plus grand rôle malgré l'importance incontestable de ce pays pour la stabilité régionale. Les nationalistes chinois estiment que si les USA se sont lancés dans cette guerre, c'est notamment pour que leur armée soit présente à proximité de l'une des frontières les plus sensibles de la Chine. Par ailleurs, pour ravitailler ses forces en Afghanistan, les USA ont accru leur présence en Asie centrale en louant la base aérienne de Manas au Kirghizstan, un pays frontalier de la Chine. Aux yeux des nationalistes chinois, ce sont là des éléments d'une conspiration américaine visant à encercler la Chine. Aussi se réjouissent-ils de l'annonce du départ des forces américaines.

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