Asia bridge infrastructure Yong Zhao/Flickr

El multilateralismo de Asia

NUEVA YORK – El Fondo Monetario Internacional y el Banco Mundial están en vísperas de celebrar sus reuniones anuales, pero la gran noticia con respecto a la gobernanza de la economía mundial no surgirá en Washington D.C. durante los próximos días. De hecho, se la conoció el mes pasado, cuando el Reino Unido, Alemania, Francia e Italia se unieron a más de otros treinta países, y se convirtieron en miembros fundadores del Banco Asiático de Inversión en Infraestructura (BAII). El BAII con 50 mil millones de dólares estadounidenses, fue puesto en marcha por China y ayudará a satisfacer las enormes necesidades de infraestructura de Asia, mismas que van mucho más allá de la capacidad que tienen los mecanismos institucionales de financiación de hoy en día.

Uno pensaría que la puesta en marcha del BAII, y la decisión de tantísimos gobiernos de brindarle su apoyo, sería un motivo de regocijo universal. Y sí lo fue para el FMI, el Banco Mundial, y para muchos otros. Pero, desconcertantemente, la decisión que tomaron los países ricos de Europa al unirse a esta institución provocó la ira de las autoridades estadounidenses. De hecho, una fuente estadounidense no identificada acusó al Reino Unido de “la constantemente acomodación” de la China. Secretamente, Estados Unidos presiona a los países alrededor del mundo para que se mantengan alejados.

De hecho, la oposición de Estados Unidos al BAII es incompatible con sus prioridades económicas declaradas en Asia. Lamentablemente, este parece ser otro caso de inseguridad estadounidense sobre su influencia mundial, misma que prevalece sobre su retórica idealista – esta vez posiblemente socavando una importante oportunidad para fortalecer las economías en desarrollo de Asia.

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