El estímulo visionario de China

SHANGHÁI – En marzo del año pasado, la primera sesión de la decimosegunda Asamblea Popular Nacional de China comenzó con el discurso del entonces premier Wen Jiabao en el que presentó su décimo y último "informe sobre el trabajo del gobierno". Cuando terminó, los 3.000 representantes presentes le ofrecieron una ovación resonante que, sin duda, fue una respuesta a algo más que el informe; fue una manifestación de elogio y respeto por sus logros como jefe del gobierno de China.  

Sin embargo, desde entonces, las evaluaciones del liderazgo de Wen -en especial la manera en que administró la economía- han variado ampliamente. Mientras que los seguidores de Wen siguen insistiendo en que el hombre respaldó esencialmente un giro hacia la democracia y una economía de mercado para China, sus críticos lo vapulean por no cumplir sus promesas de una reforma política y económica. En un momento en que el sucesor de Wen, Li Keqiang, intenta diseñar reformas sistémicas profundas, entender las decisiones de Wen en materia de políticas es algo que no podría ser más relevante.

La política económica más polémica de Wen fue el paquete de estímulo de 4 billones de yuanes chinos (586.000 millones de dólares) que su gobierno lanzó en respuesta a la crisis financiera de 2008. Si bien la política logró apuntalar el crecimiento económico de China, se la criticó ampliamente como una reacción exagerada que llevó a una expansión monetaria excesiva.

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