Barrie Maguire

Chine Inc. se globalise

NEW YORK – L’économie de la Chine entame aujourd’hui sa prochaine grande avancée : certains pans de son secteur manufacturier grimpent dans la chaine de valeur ajoutée et se délocalisent. Le défi chinois est désormais global.

Il n’est pas difficile d’en comprendre les raisons. Les coûts de production (salaires, loyers commerciaux, terrains, capital, etc.) dans les provinces côtières de la Chine – où se situent une grande part de la production manufacturière et de services du pays, ainsi que l’investissement étranger – ont rapidement augmenté. Ne serait-ce que depuis l’année dernière, le salaire minimal dans neuf des douze provinces côtières (dont Pékin) ont augmenté de plus de 21% en moyenne.

Le renminbi s’étant apprécié dans le même temps, la production locale de produits et de services destinés à l’exportation devient encore plus coûteuse. Cela est important, surtout pour les activités exigeantes en main-d’ouvre (de la fabrication de jouets aux services de saisie de données), que ce soit dans les filiales de sociétés multinationales étrangères (qui constituent plus de la moitié des exportations chinoises) ou dans les entreprises locales, qui perdent en compétitivité sur les marchés internationaux.

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