Le Chili garde le cap

BUENOS AIRES – Lorsque que Sebastián Piñera, magnat des affaires modérément conservateur et vainqueur des élections présidentielles, prendra ses fonctions le 11 mars prochain, le Chili va faire l’expérience de ce que certains politologues qualifient de tournant décisif dans une transition démocratique réussie : l’alternance politique au pouvoir.

Après le retour à la démocratie en 1990, suite aux années de dictature du général Augusto Pinochet, la coalition de centre-gauche connue sous le nom de Concertación (la Concertation, ndt) a gagné quatre élections présidentielles consécutives libres et équitables. Après 20 années au pouvoir, elle doit maintenant céder sa place à la « Coalition pour le changement » de Piñera, composée de son parti de centre-droit, la Renovación Nacional (Rénovation Nationale, ndt) et du plus conservateur Union Demócrata Independiente ( Union Démocrate Indépendante , ndt) .

Ces longues années au pouvoir de la Concertación sont le reflet de son succès. Dans presque tous les domaines, stabilité politique, développement économique ou réduction de la pauvreté, le Chili a bien réussi depuis 20 ans - en tout cas surement mieux que la plupart de ces voisins latino-américains. Le dilemme de l’opposition de droite était de défaire une coalition qui avait poursuivi la plupart des politiques positives de Pinochet (principalement l’économie de marché et un modèle économique orienté vers l’exportation) sans pour autant être entaché (comme le sont nombre des responsables de la Coalición ) par des liens avec son régime sanguinaire.

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