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أزمة المعاشات بالشيلي

سانتياغو –تتعرض خُطط التقاعد المحددة الفائدة لضغوط قوية. وتُسبب التركيبة السكانية المتغيرة مشاكل لما يسمى بنظام الدفع من الأجر أولا بأول، الذي يساهم فيه العمال بتمويل معاشاتهم التقاعدية. وقد نتج عن أسعار الفائدة التي بلغت أدنى مستوياتها القياسية إكراهات كبيرة على الأنظمة الممولة، التي تدفع بموجبها العائدات من الاستثمارات السابقة للحصول على إعانات التقاعد. مؤخرا وصفت صحيفة فاينانشال تايمز قضية المعاشات ب "أزمة اجتماعية وسياسية زاحفة".

وكثيرا ما تتم الإشادة بالاشتراكات المحددة وبالأنظمة الممولة بالكامل كبديل ممكن. وقد حث الشيلي منذ عام 1981 المواطنين على الادخار في حسابات فردية من أجل التقاعد، تُدار من قبل مدراء القطاع الخاص، ولهذا السبب كان من المفترض أن يصبح الشيلي بمثابة الطفل المدلل في هذا الصدد. غير أن مئات الآلاف من الشيليين نزلوا إلى الشوارع احتجاجا على المعاشات المنخفضة. (يبلغ متوسط الفائدة الشهرية المدفوعة من قبل النظام الخاص في الشيلي حوالي 300 دولار، أي أقل من الحد الأدنى للأجور في الشيلي).

وبعد شعورها بغضب الشارع، أخذت حكومة الشيلي على نفسها تغيير النظام الذي اعتمدته دول مثل البيرو، وكولومبيا، والمكسيك ، والذي وصفه جورج دبليو بوش في الماضي بأنه "مثال عظيم" لإصلاح الضمان الاجتماعي في الولايات المتحدة. فما الذي يقع؟

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