Chilean President Michelle Bachelet Pool Laurie Dieffembacq/ZumaPress

Неопределенное будущее Чили

КЕМБРИДЖ – Когда я был в Чили в начале этого месяца, я был поражен разницей между ощутимым успехом её долго-действующей политики свободного рынка и текущей повесткой дня её левого президента Мишель Бачелет. Как разрешится эта разница будет иметь важные последствия не только для страны, с населением более чем 17 миллионов людей, но и для всех, кто считает Чили образцом того, чего смогла достичь надежная экономическая политика.

Экономические показатели Чили были сильнейшими в Южной Америке. Её ВВП на душу населения превышает $22,000 в условиях паритета покупательной способности, что делает её средний доход выше чем у Аргентины, Бразилии и Мексики. Неудивительно, что Чили считается развитой страной, ведь она единственный южноамериканский член ОЭСР.

Медь является основным продуктом Чили и составляет половину её экспорта. Хотя правительство владеет компанией «Codelco», крупнейшим в мире производителем меди, она также является единственной государственной компанией Чили. Выручка компании зависит от мировой цены на медь, она получает более высокие доходы для государства в одном году и меньшие доходы – как, например, в этом году – когда мировая цена падает. Правительство придерживается мудрой стратегии налогово-бюджетной политики, что предполагает профицит бюджета в те годы, когда выручка от меди высокая, от которой дополнительные средства, направленны в национальный стабилизационный фонд.

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