L’immunité controversée de l’Afrique

NEW YORK – La décision de l’Union Africaine, après plus de cinq années de préparation, de transférer sa compétence juridique en matière de crimes internationaux comme le génocide, les crimes contre l’humanité et les crimes de guerre, à la Cour africaine de justice et des droits de l’homme a généré de nombreuses controverses.

Les opposants à la décision de l’Union Africaine prétendent qu’il n’existe aucune cour des droits de l’homme régionale comparable ailleurs, et que le statut de Rome de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) ne prévoit pas de systèmes régionaux complémentaires. Mais « cela ne s’est jamais vu auparavant » n’est jamais une raison suffisante pour ne pas innover, d’autant que le statut de la CPI n’est pas une autorité du droit international inattaquable en matière de responsabilité. En fait, la Charte des Nations Unies autorise explicitement « l’existence d’agences ou d’arrangements régionaux pour la gestion des affaires liées au maintien de la sécurité et de la paix internationales qui exigeraient une action régionale. »

Un autre critique largement entendue est que l’Afrique souffre d’un manque de capacité à juger les crimes internationaux. Mais cette notion selon laquelle l’Afrique ne pourrait prendre la responsabilité de juger des Africains ayant commis des atrocités est au mieux, condescendante. La capacité n’est pas une condition statique. Avec un profond engagement, n’importe quel pays ou institution peut se la forger.

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