Mitos y errores sobre Chernóbil

El vigésimo aniversario del accidente nuclear de Chernóbil, ocurrido el 26 de abril de 1986, está provocando una nueva ola de afirmaciones alarmistas sobre sus repercusiones en la salud humana y el medio ambiente. Como ha llegado a ser ritual en semejantes ocasiones conmemorativas, se le atribuyen centenares de miles de víctimas mortales y se preparan nuevos informes sobre elevadas tasas de cáncer, defectos al nacer y mortalidad total.

Se trata de un panorama muy deformado... y al tiempo perjudicial para las víctimas del accidente de Chernóbil. Todos los estudios científicos acreditados que se han llevado a cabo hasta ahora han concluido que las repercusiones de la radiación han sido menos dañinas de lo que se temía. Unas docenas de los trabajadores que afrontaron la urgencia y lucharon contra el fuego en el reactor sucumbieron por la enfermedad aguda provocada por la radiación. Siguen en marcha estudios sobre las elevadas tasas de cáncer y enfermedades cardiovasculares entre los "liquidadores", que trabajaron en el local del reactor en los meses posteriores al accidente, y, entre quienes eran niños en aquel momento, se han detectado unos 5.000 casos de cáncer de tiroides, atribuido al yodo radioactivo absorbido con el consumo de leche en las semanas inmediatamente posteriores al accidente.

Ha habido un sufrimiento innegable entre las 330.000 personas que fueron trasladadas y reasentadas después del accidente. Sobre eso no hay duda, pero, para los cinco millones de personas que viven en regiones afectadas y son designadas como "víctimas" de Chernóbil, la radiación no ha tenido repercusiones discernibles en su salud física.

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