Inde-Pakistan : Un véritable dialogue sur le Cachemire ?

Après deux années marquées par des phases de tension d'autant plus inquiétantes que les deux pays disposent de l'arme atomique, l'Inde et le Pakistan ont à nouveau entamé des négociations, plutôt que d'échanger des menaces sur un arrière-fond nucléaire. Mais les discussions en cours ont-elles plus de chances d'aboutir que toutes celles qui les ont précédées au cours des cinquante dernières années ?

Le 25 novembre 2003, l'Inde et le Pakistan ont convenu d'un cessez-le-feu le long de la ligne de contrôle, le long de la frontière qui sépare le Cachemire indien du Cachemire pakistanais et de la ligne de position terrestre dans la région stratégique du Siachen. Le cessez-le-feu couvre donc une zone étendue qui comporte les 778 kilomètres de la ligne de contrôle, les 150 kilomètres de la ligne de position terrestre et les 198 kilomètres de frontière internationale. Cela devrait permettre un dialogue constructif lors du sommet de l'Association de l'Asie du Sud pour la coopération régionale (SAARC) qui se tiendra à Islamabad le 4 et le 5 janvier.

Enfin, le Pakistan a partiellement renoncé à son exigence - qui date de la création de l'Inde et du Pakistan il y a un peu plus d'un demi-siècle - d'un référendum d'autodétermination sous contrôle international au Cachemire. C'est là une concession courageuse, mais l'Inde attend encore un autre geste plus démonstratif du Pakistan avant de croire à sa volonté de paix ; elle veut que le Pakistan démantèle les infrastructures du terrorisme transfrontalier, notamment les camps d'entraînement des indépendantistes et de leurs alliés étrangers du djihad musulman.

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