La nuova forma dell’economia cinese

PECHINO – Durante tutto il 2012, la transizione della leadership cinese ha attirato, meritatamente, grande attenzione a livello globale vista l’importanza globale del paese. Inoltre, cosa ancor più importante, sembra che le trasformazioni strategiche ora in corso influenzeranno quasi sicuramente il futuro modello di crescita globale.

Per trent’anni, i dividendi derivanti dalla decisione iniziale di Deng Xiaoping di aprire l’economia cinese alle forze del mercato e al mondo hanno contribuito ad una crescita rapida. Fino a poco tempo fa, il fattore chiave era rappresentato dall’enorme offerta di manodopera a basso costo che ha fornito le basi del modello orientato principalmente alle esportazioni.

Questo modello, concentrato sulla parte costiera della Cina, ha prodotto una distribuzione squilibrata dei prodotti e delineato una struttura singolare rappresentata da un grande risparmio e un basso consumo. E in effetti, in seguito alle riforme del mercato, il tasso di risparmio è aumentato progressivamente passando dal 38% del PIL nel 1978 al 51% nel 2007.

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