La nouvelle forme de l’économie chinoise

PÉKIN – La transition de gouvernance en Chine a attiré l’attention du monde en cette année 2012, et, à juste titre, conféré au pays toute sa signification internationale. Mais plus important encore, un certain nombre de transformations stratégiques aujourd’hui en cours semblent vouées à influencer le futur modèle de croissance de la Chine.

Depuis trente ans, les profits rendus possibles par la décision originelle de Deng Xiaoping d’ouvrir l’économie chinoise aux forces du marché et à la planète toute entière alimentent une croissance à grande vitesse. Jusqu’à récemment, la clé de cette croissance résidait dans une offre chinoise considérable en main d’œuvre bon marché, à l’origine de la construction d’un modèle de pays à vocation exportatrice.

Concentré sur les régions côtières de la Chine, ce schéma a conduit à une répartition inégale de la production, et établi un modèle unique, caractérisé par une épargne élevée et une faible consommation. En effet, le taux d’épargne de la Chine a connu une augmentation régulière à la suite de l’apparition des réformes de marché, passant de 38% du PIB en 1978 à 51% en 2007.

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