Crumpled paper on notebook with drawn image of light bulb.

Piloter la révolution de l'énergie

RIYADH/LONDRES – Pendant des décennies, le paysage international de l'énergie a été relativement stable, où des producteurs comme l'Arabie Saoudite, l'Iran et l'Algérie vendaient le pétrole et le gaz à des consommateurs comme les États-Unis et l'Europe. Cependant d'ici quelques années, le terrain de l'énergie est susceptible d'être méconnaissable car des changements technologiques, économiques et géopolitiques dramatiques remodèlent les rapports commerciaux dans le monde entier.

Il nous faut une nouvelle structure de gouvernance, qui aille au-delà des relations bilatérales traditionnelles entre producteurs et consommateurs. Dans un monde qui évolue rapidement, garantir la sécurité de l'énergie va exiger une gestion prudente des multiples relations d'interdépendance. Seul un forum international global, au sein duquel des idées complexes pourront être partagées et discutées, est susceptible d'être à la hauteur de la charge de direction de la nouvelle ère d'utilisation, de production et de consommation de l'énergie.

Les changements en cours sont profonds. Dans de nombreux pays exportateurs d'énergie, la consommation nationale est en forte augmentation. Historiquement ces pays considèrent l'énergie comme une ressource bon marché. Aujourd'hui, ils prennent de plus en plus de mesures pour supprimer les subventions, introduire les prix du marché et accroître l'efficacité : des politiques qui sont plus généralement associées aux pays importateurs d'énergie. BP prédit qu'au Moyen-Orient, avec ses vastes réserves de combustibles fossiles, la consommation d'énergie primaire va augmenter de 77% d'ici 2035.

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