La educación poco sentimental de Europa central

BUDAPEST – Este mes se cumplen 20 años de la reinhumación de Imre Nagy, el líder de la fallida revolución antisoviética de Hungría en 1956. La ceremonia, organizada por la oposición anticomunista húngara en el 31° aniversario de su ejecución atrajo a más de 100,000 asistentes y anunció el principio del fin del régimen esclerótico del país. Nosotros los húngaros, y Europa central en general, hemos avanzado mucho desde esos emocionantes tiempos, pero los últimos 20 años también nos han dado muchas razones para cuestionar el camino que tomamos.

Hungría desempeñó un papel especial en la caída del comunismo, pues aceleró el proceso al abrir sus fronteras a los refugiados de Alemania oriental. Pero la transformación democrática del país exigió una estrategia de oposición a lo largo de los años ochenta: la revolución no funcionaría, como lo demostró la invasión soviética de 1956. Tampoco servirían las reformas internas, porque los soviéticos intervendrían para salvar al sistema, como lo hicieron en Checoslovaquia en 1968.

En cambio, la estrategia fue dejar de lado la cuestión del poder político. En lugar de atacar directamente al gobierno comunista, crearíamos pequeñas islas de libertad, círculos y asociaciones sociales relacionados entre sí que, llegado el momento, pudieran conectarse para cambiar el sistema. En Hungría había varias organizaciones juveniles que sabían de la existencia de las demás, así que la comunidad política que participó en los cambios de 1989 se organizó sobre esa base.

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