Несентиментальное обучение стран Центральной Европы

БУДАПЕШТ. В этом месяце наступает двадцатая годовщина перезахоронения Имре Надя, лидера венгерской провалившейся антисоветской революции 1956 года. Реинтернирование, организованное венгерской антикоммунистической оппозицией в тридцать первую годовщину его казни, привлекло более 100 000 человек, предрекающих начало конца склерозного режима страны. Мы, венгры, и Центральная Европа в общем, ушли далеко с того неистового времени, однако прошедшие 20 лет также оставляют нам много причин для сомнений в пути, который мы выбрали.

Венгрия сыграла особую роль в падении коммунизма, ускоряя этот процесс, открыв свои границы для беженцев из Восточной Германии. Однако демократическая трансформация в Венгрии потребовала оппозиционной стратегии в 1980-х годах: революция не пройдет, как это показало советское вторжение 1956 года. Не сработали бы и внутренние реформы, поскольку Советский Союз бы вмешался, чтобы сохранить систему, как это произошло в Чехословакии в 1968 году.

Новая стратегия заключалась в оттеснении на второй план вопроса политической власти. Вместо того, чтобы прямо нападать на коммунистическое правление, мы стремились к созданию маленьких островков свободы, взаимосвязанных слоев общества и ассоциаций, которые, когда наступил момент, были бы все связаны, чтобы изменить систему. В Венгрии существовало несколько молодежных организаций, которые знали друг о друге, таким образом, политическое сообщество, которое приняло участие в политических изменениях в Венгрии в 1989 году, было организовано на этой основе.

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