Mitteleuropas unsentimentale Lehrjahre

BUDAPEST – In diesem Monat jährt sich die erneute Beisetzung von Imre Nagy, dem Anführer des gescheiterten antisowjetischen Ungarischen Volksaufstands von 1956, zum zwanzigsten Mal. Die Umbettung, die von Ungarns antikommunistischer Opposition zum 31. Jahrestag seiner Hinrichtung organisiert wurde, zog über 100.000 Besucher an und leitete den Anfang vom Ende für das erstarrte Regime des Landes ein. Wir Ungarn, und die Mitteleuropäer im Allgemeinen, sind seit jenen ungestümen Tagen weit gekommen, aber die letzten 20 Jahre haben uns auch einigen Anlass gegeben, den eingeschlagenen Weg in Frage zu stellen.

Ungarn hat beim Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus eine besondere Rolle gespielt, indem es den Prozess durch die Öffnung seiner Grenzen für ostdeutsche Flüchtlinge beschleunigt hat. Doch war für den demokratischen Wandel in Ungarn eine Oppositionsstrategie während der gesamten 80er Jahre notwendig: Revolution funktionierte nicht, wie die sowjetische Invasion 1956 zeigte. Ebenso wenig funktionierten interne Reformen, da die Sowjets stets eingriffen, um das System zu retten, wie 1968 in der Tschechoslowakei.

Stattdessen lautete die neue Strategie, die Frage der politischen Macht aus dem Spiel zu lassen. Anstatt die kommunistische Herrschaft direkt anzugreifen, schufen wir kleine Inseln der Freiheit, vernetzten soziale Kreise und Vereinigungen, die – als der Moment gekommen war – alle miteinander verbunden werden konnten, um das System zu verändern. In Ungarn gab es mehrere Jugendorganisationen, die voneinander wussten, und so wurde die politische Gemeinschaft, die sich 1989 am politischen Wandel in Ungarn beteiligte, auf dieser Grundlage organisiert.

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