Nesentimentální výchova střední Evropy

BUDAPEŠŤ – Tento měsíc si připomínáme 20. výročí opětovného pohřbu Imre Nagye, vůdce neúspěšného protisovětského povstání v Maďarsku roku 1956. Přenos ostatků, uspořádaný maďarskou protikomunistickou opozicí u příležitosti 31. výročí jeho popravy, navštívilo přes 100 tisíc účastníků, což předznamenalo začátek konce sklerotického režimu země. My Maďaři, a Středoevropané obecně, už jsme od oněch opojných dnů urazili dalekou cestu, ale uplynulých 20 let nám též zavdalo mnoho důvodů ke zpochybňování stezky, po níž jsme se vydali.

Maďarsko při pádu komunismu sehrálo zvláštní roli, když proces urychlilo otevřením hranic pro východoněmecké uprchlíky. Demokratická transformace v Maďarsku ale vyžadovala opoziční strategii 80. let: jak ukázala sovětská invaze v roce 1956, revoluce nefunguje. Neuspělo by ani vnitřní reformní úsilí, protože Sověti by na záchranu systému zakročili, jak učinili v roce 1968 v Československu.

Novou strategií namísto toho bylo otázku politické moci obejít. Neútočili jsme na komunistickou vládu přímo, ale vytvářeli jsme ostrůvky svobody, vzájemně propojené společenské okruhy a sdružení, jež bylo možné spojit, jakmile nadešel čas, aby se změnil režim. V Maďarsku existovalo několik mládežnických organizací, které o sobě navzájem věděly, takže politická obec, která se v zemi roku 1989 účastnila politických změn, byla organizována na tomto základě.

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