中欧的理性教育

布达佩斯-本月是1956年被镇压的的匈牙利反苏运动领导人伊姆雷·纳吉被重新安葬的20周年纪念。与此同时,匈牙利的反共产主义党派发起了纪念纳吉遇害31周年活动,动员了超过10万名参加者一起来纪念这个标志着僵化制度走向瓦解的开创性事件。虽然对于匈牙利人以及中欧人来说,那些铁幕专制的年代早已远去,但过去20年所经历的一切,仍呼唤我们去反思自己选择的道路。

匈牙利在共产主义的瓦解过程中扮演了非常特殊的角色,它通过对东德难民开放边界,加速了瓦解的整个进程。但在1980年代,匈牙利的民主变革要求反对派必须找到某种新的斗争策略:靠革命运动是行不通的,1956年那场苏联入侵证明了这点;内部改革也是行不通的,因为苏联阵营各国势必会像1968年针对捷克斯洛伐克那样插手干预,以挽救整个苏维埃制度。

对此,反对派采取的新策略则是退出对政治权力的争夺——与其直接与共产党统治硬碰硬,不如选择去建立许许多多自由,且互相关联的小圈子和社会组织,这样只要时机一到,反对派就能够迅速聚集起足够的力量去改变整个体制。而当年在匈牙利就存在着许多关系密切的青年组织,许多1989年参加政治变革的政治团体也正是脱胎于此。

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