Asie centrale : l’émergence d’un géant

LA HAYE – L’organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS) regroupe près de la moitié de la population mondiale, plusieurs de ses membres possèdent l’arme nucléaire, ou sont de gros fournisseurs d’énergie. L’OCS compte quelques unes des économies à la croissance la plus forte dans le monde et pourtant rares sont ceux en dehors de l’Asie centrale à avoir entendu parler de cette organisation.

L’OCS est née après l’effondrement de l’Union soviétique en 1996. Ses membres sont actuellement la Russie, la Chine, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l’Ouzbékistan, tandis que la Mongolie, l’Iran, le Pakistan et l’Inde y participent en qualité d’observateurs. La Russie et la Chine en sont les principaux protagonistes. Depuis sa fondation, les manoeuvres militaires de l’OCS sont devenues de plus en plus ambitieuses, dépassant les opérations bilatérales pour inclure l’ensemble de ses membres. Les pays membres de l’OCS commencent également à coopérer dans la lutte contre le trafic de stupéfiants et le crime organisé.

Jusqu’à récemment, les questions énergétiques étaient envisagées uniquement sous un angle bilatéral par les membres de l’OCS. Mais l’an dernier, pour coordonner les stratégies énergétiques et renforcer la sécurité énergétique, l’organisation a mis sur pied un club qui réunit les États producteurs et les États consommateurs, les pays de transit et des entreprises du secteur privé. L’OCS est également favorable au libre-échange et cherche à améliorer les infrastructures de base comme les réseaux routiers et ferroviaires pour relier ses membres et stimuler le commerce, tout en harmonisant les taxes et les régimes douaniers.

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