Children in Honduras.

El triángulo de la desesperación de Centroamérica

SAN JOSÉ – Durante los últimos cinco años, unos 100.000 niños migrantes no acompañados provenientes de Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador fueron aprehendidos en la frontera sur de Estados Unidos. Son un subgrupo particularmente trágico de los aproximadamente tres millones de migrantes del llamado Triángulo Norte de Centroamérica que han llegado a Estados Unidos en las dos últimas décadas.

En las raíces de este éxodo yace una maraña de problemas estructurales. Gobiernos débiles y desafíos fiscales, una corrupción endémica, economías en crisis y altos niveles de delincuencia han convertido a estos tres países pequeños en lugares difíciles para vivir. Y cambiar esa realidad probablemente requiera de la ayuda de Estados Unidos. Si bien los desafíos del Triángulo Norte no se pueden resolver exclusivamente a través de la asistencia extranjera, es poco probable que se puedan superar sin ella.

La debilidad de los gobiernos de la región es un problema clave. El Triángulo Norte tiene una de las cargas tributarias más bajas del mundo –apenas por debajo del 16% del PIB-, lo que limita seriamente la capacidad de sus gobiernos para mitigar el impacto de los altos niveles de pobreza y desigualdad de sus países.

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