Catalizar el consumo y equilibrar el crecimiento

WASHINGTON, DC – China ha capeado bien la Gran Recesión. El mundo ahora espera ver si el impresionante crecimiento de la demanda interna del año pasado se puede sostener, y si China, según las palabras del primer ministro Wen Jiabao, puede “darle rienda suelta al papel protagónico de la demanda de consumo a la hora de impulsar el crecimiento económico”.

El consumidor chino ha estado rezagado durante mucho tiempo, y ahora se lo obliga a ocupar un lugar central en el modelo de crecimiento de China. El gobierno chino ya está avanzando en múltiples frentes para alcanzar este objetivo, como quedó claro en los anuncios del Congreso Nacional del Pueblo de esta semana.

De los muchos factores que han reducido la cuota del consumo en la economía de China, el menguante ingreso disponible de los hogares ha sido central. Eso, a su vez, reflejó la caída en los ingresos laborales como una cuota de la economía, debido en parte a cambios estructurales que han desplazado a los trabajadores de la agricultura (donde el porcentaje laboral del ingreso es alto) a la industria (donde el capital se lleva una porción más importante del ingreso).

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