Nueces de cajú y políticas malogradas en Mozambique

¿Por qué África sigue teniendo pobres resultados económicos, a pesar de dos décadas de reforma estructural? La mayoría de los gobiernos africanos han liberalizado sus regímenes de comercio, desregulado sus economías y (según la mayoría de los parámetros de evaluación) mejorado el diseño de sus políticas. Sin embargo, los resultados son anémicos.

Los economistas y las agencias de ayuda occidentales se quejan sobre la inadecuada implementación y la falta de compromiso de los gobiernos africanos. Pero las insuficiencias en los planes de reforma originales juegan un papel más importante. Las reformas diseñadas sin una consideración adecuada de las realidades locales y las políticas internas a menudo han producido consecuencias inesperadas o han tenido resultados contraproducentes.

El caso de las nueces de cajú de Mozambique lo ilustra claramente. Históricamente, el sector del cajú ha constituido una importante parte de la economía mozambiqueña, proporcionando ingresos a varios millones de personas. En los años 60, Mozambique producía la mitad del total mundial. Tras ello, el sector sufrió un largo declive, como consecuencia de una combinación de políticas adversas y la guerra civil de 1982 a 1992, que interrumpió la plantación de nuevos árboles.

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