Орехи кешью и «дубовая» политика в Мозамбике

Почему экономические показатели Африки остаются неутешительными, не смотря на то, что там уже два десятилетия проводятся структурные реформы? Большинство африканских правительств провели либерализацию своих торговых режимов, осуществили дерегулирование своих экономик и (всеми доступными способами) улучшили качество разработки своих стратегий экономического развития. Однако достигнутые ими результаты не производят никакого впечатления.

Западные экономисты и организации, оказывающие финансовую поддержку реформам, жалуются на неправильное исполнение того, что они задумали, и на неисполнение обязательств со стороны африканских правительств. Но недостатки в планировании реформы играют еще большую роль. Реформы, которые были разработаны без адекватного учета местных реалий, без учета проводимой на местах политики, зачастую приводят к непредвиденным последствиям, или вообще дают обратный эффект.

История с мозамбикскими орехами кешью очень четко иллюстрирует этот факт. Исторически сектор, который занимался выращиванием орехов кешью, составлял большую часть экономики Мозамбика. Работая в этом секторе, миллионы людей зарабатывали себе на жизнь. В 1960-е годы в Мозамбике производилась половина мирового объема орехов кешью. Однако затем этот сектор экономики Мозамбика пришел в длительный упадок, который был вызван неправильной политикой, а также гражданской войной, причем за период с 1982 по 1992 год новые посадки ореховых деревьев сократились наполовину.

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