Cashew und die harten Nüsse der Politik Mosambiks

Warum geht es Afrika trotz zwei Jahrzehnte struktureller Reformen weiterhin wirtschaftlich so schlecht? Die meisten afrikanischen Regierungen haben ihre Politik liberalisiert, ihre Wirtschaften dereguliert, und (durch viele derartige Maßnahmen) die Qualität ihrer politischen Entscheidungsfindung verbessert. Dennoch sind die Ergebnisse saft- und kraftlos.

Westliche Ökonomen und Hilfsagenturen klagen darüber, daß die afrikanischen Regierungen die Maßnahmen nicht angemessen eingeführt und dabei zuwenig Engagement gezeigt hätten. Doch Unzulänglichkeiten in den Reformkonzepten spielen eine größere Rolle. Sind die Reformen nicht richtig auf die Gegebenheiten vor Ort hin entworfen und berücksichtigen nicht die politische Situation im Land, dann zeitigen sie unbeabsichtigte Folgen oder gehen nach hinten los.

Das Beispiel der Cashew-Produktion in Mosambik macht das deutlich. Seit alters spielen die Acajoubäume eine wichtige Rolle in der Wirtschaft Mosambiks. Sie bringen einigen Millionen Menschen ihr Einkommen. In den 1960er Jahren lieferte Mosambik die Hälfte der gesamten Cashewnuss-Produktion der Welt. Der Sektor erlebte danach einen langanhaltenden Rückgang, weil falsche Politik und im Zusammenspiel mit dem Bürgerkrieg von 1982 bis 1992 neue Anpflanzungen vereitelte.

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