Anne Ruthmann/Flickr

超级城市的生活

伦敦——是的!每位法国五年级小学生都知道,互联网的发明地是巴黎。当时它名叫迷你电传(Minitel),也就是法语Médium interactif par numérisation d’information téléphonique的缩写,拥有近900万台终端,个人和组织可以实时联网进行信息交换。迷你电传曾在20世纪八九十年代蓬勃发展,孕育了各种在线应用的雏形,后来正是这些应用引领了全球.com狂潮。“真正”的互联网主宰全球后迷你电传开始逐渐衰退,直到最终退出历史舞台。

迷你电传和互联网都基于数字信息网络创建。但两者的实施模式却截然相反。迷你电传采取自上而下的模式;由法国邮政及全国电信运营商负责主要的部署工作。Minitel网络运行效果良好,但僵化的体制和专用协议必然限制其增长和创新的潜能。

相反,互联网采取自下而上的模式,成功地避开了电信巨头初期的监管。最终演变成我们今天熟知的混乱但具有革命意义的改变世界的力量(教皇弗朗西斯不久前称之为“来自上帝的礼物”。)

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