就业中的创造性破坏

牛津—纵观历史,技术进步创造了无穷财富,但也导致了巨大破坏。比如,美国钢铁业在20世纪60年代经历了重大转型,当时,大型综合性钢铁厂逐渐被小型钢铁厂挤出,摧毁了宾夕法尼亚州的匹兹堡市和俄亥俄州的杨斯顿(Youngstown)市等老牌经济重镇。但是,小钢铁厂极大地增进了生产率,在其他地区创造出新的就业方式。

美国钢铁业的故事是关于经济学家约瑟夫·熊彼特(Joseph Schumpeter)所谓的“创造性破坏”(“creative destruction”)的重要例子。长期经济增长并不仅仅是现有工厂产出增加,也意味着就业结构的调整。

我们可以在最近的信息和通信技术革命中看到类似的现象。信息和通信技术革命影响了现代工作岗位的方方面面,即使是那些与计算机编程或软件工程没有直接关系的岗位。计算机技术创造了繁荣的新企业(甚至企业集群),同时也让某些制造业工人成为冗余,让老牌制造业城市衰落。

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