Christina Lagarde International Monetary Fund/Flickr

El camino a la tarificación de las emisiones de carbono

WASHINGTON, DC – En apenas seis semanas, los líderes mundiales se reunirán en París para negociar un nuevo acuerdo global sobre el cambio climático. Hasta la fecha, 150 países han presentado planes con detalles para que sus economías dependan menos del consumo de carbono. Se trata de la primera generación de inversiones para construir un futuro competitivo sin los peligrosos niveles de emisiones de dióxido de carbono que hoy causan el calentamiento global.

Para hacer la transición a un futuro más limpio será necesario aplicar tanto medidas gubernamentales como incentivos adecuados para el sector privado. Su eje articulador debería ser una sólida política pública que ponga precio a la contaminación por carbono. Elevar los precios de los combustibles, la electricidad y las actividades industriales que requieran el consumo de carbono incentivará el uso de combustibles más limpios, ayudará a ahorrar energía y promoverá una transición a inversiones más ecológicas. Si se adoptan medidas como tasas e impuestos al carbono, programas de comercio de derechos de emisión y otros mecanismos económicos, junto con la eliminación de subsidios ineficientes, las empresas y los hogares tendrán la certeza y la previsibilidad que necesitan para tomar decisiones de largo plazo tendientes a un desarrollo respetuoso del medio ambiente.

En el Fondo Monetario Internacional nos centramos en reformar los sistemas fiscales de los países miembros a fin de obtener más ingresos por impuestos sobre los combustibles con altas emisiones de carbono y reducir aquellos que afectan negativamente el rendimiento económico, como los gravámenes al trabajo y el capital. La tarificación de emisiones de carbono puede apuntar a la creación de sistemas tributarios más inteligentes y eficientes, en lugar de impuestos más altos.

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