Christina Lagarde International Monetary Fund/Flickr

通往碳定价之路

华盛顿—区区六周后,世界领导人将齐聚巴黎协商新的全球气候变化协定。目前,150个国家已经递交了关于如何让本国经济走向恢复力更强的低碳轨迹的详细计划。这些计划给出了第一批为了在不让二氧化碳排放量达到如今导致全球变暖的危险水平的情况下构建高竞争力未来而进行的投资。

通往更清洁的未来的转型将需要政府行动起来并未私人部门提供正确的激励。居于核心地位的应该是强有力的碳污染定价公共政策。给碳基能源、电力和工业活动定更高的价格将刺激人们使用更清洁的燃料、节约能量、促进向更绿色的投资的转变。碳税和碳费、排量交易安排和其他定价机制、取消低效补贴,这些措施能够给予企业和家庭它们所需要的确定性和可预测性,让它们为气候智能(climate-smart)发展做出长期投资。

在国际货币基金组织(IMF),注意力集中在改革成员国的财政制度,从碳密集型燃料的税收上获得更多收入,同时减少不利于经济表现的劳动和资本方面的税收。碳定价可以是更智能、更高效的税收制度,并不一定要提高税负。

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