Chimney emitting smoke

Un plan de cobro y descuento para el carbono

PARÍS – Hasta el momento, las conversaciones internacionales sobre el clima no han logrado encontrar un mecanismo que reduzca de manera exitosa las emisiones globales de gases de tipo invernadero. El Protocolo de Kyoto de 1997 intentó utilizar un sistema de cuotas negociables para establecer un precio sobre las emisiones de dióxido de carbono, pero fracasó después de que Estados Unidos y varios países emergentes se negaron a suscribirlo.

La Conferencia sobre Cambio Climático de Copenhague de 2009 introdujo un proceso de promesas y revisión, en el que los países unilateralmente decidían cuánto recortarían. Como resultado, Estados Unidos y varias economías emergentes se comprometieron a reducir las emisiones por primera vez. Pero este sistema también está plagado de defectos. Lo que no hace es resolver el clásico problema de parasitismo ni garantiza reducciones en los países en desarrollo. Por cierto, algunos países pueden haberse visto motivados a hacer menos de lo que habrían hecho de otra manera para mantener una posición de negociación fuerte.

Cuando los líderes mundiales se reúnan en París del 30 de noviembre al 11 de diciembre para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático, tendrán una nueva oportunidad para dar forma a un acuerdo efectivo. Para alentar a los gobiernos a actuar en concierto, es esencial trabajar para implementar un sistema de fijación de precios para el carbono que sea claro y transparente. Proponemos un mecanismo de "cobro y descuento" para el carbono, que simultáneamente fije un precio sobre las emisiones por encima de un determinado umbral y defina cómo deberían utilizarse los ingresos recaudados.

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