Chimney emitting smoke

碳定价和返现计划

巴黎—目前,国际气候谈判没有能够找到可以成功降低全球温室气体排放的机制。1997年京都议定书尝试采用可交易配额系统为二氧化碳排放制定价格,但以失败告终,因为美国和一些新兴国家拒绝加入京都议定书。

2009年哥本哈根气候变化会议引入了承诺-评估程序,各国单方面决定减排多少。结果,美国和一些新兴经济体首次做出减排承诺。但这一系统也有极大的缺陷。它没有解决经典 的免费搭车问题,也无法保证发展中国家的减排。事实上,一些国家为了维持强势谈判地位,被鼓励做得更少一些。

11月30日—12月11日,全世界领导人将在巴黎出席联合国气候变化会议。这次会议是一次形成有效协议的新机会。为了鼓励各国政府一致行动,致力于构建一个直观而透明的碳定价系统至关重要。我们建议采取“定价和返现”机制,制定一个高于某个阈值的排放价格,同时明确所得收入如何使用。

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