Green countryside and trees.

Le systéme financier et le réchauffement climatique

STOCKHOLM – Le systéme financier est le théâtre d'une révolution tranquille. Selon le programme des Nations unies pour l'environnement, les décisions de nature financière prennent de plus en plus en compte le développement durable.

Jusqu'à présent, l'UE n'a guère pris part à cette transformation, alors que dans nombre de pays, les régulateurs financiers jouent un rôle majeur. Première mondiale, en France le gouvernement vient de signer un décret sur les obligations d'information des investisseurs institutionnels en ce qui concerne les actions en faveur du climat. La Norvège retire ses fonds souverains du secteur charbonnier et l'Afrique du Sud a inscrit le développement durable dans ses exigences relatives aux transactions boursières. Au Brésil, la réglementation bancaire exige désormais la prise en compte des risques environnementaux. En Suède, le gouvernement promeut un programme ambitieux en matière de développement durable avec un ensemble de propositions destinées à améliorer l'information des investisseurs et à identifier les risques climatiques auxquels doivent faire face les régulateurs et les firmes financières.

Le secteur privé évolue rapidement lui aussi. Le premier gestionnaire d'actifs de la planète, Blackrock, a élaboré une série d'indices excluant les entreprises liées aux énergies fossiles ; et Axa, l'un des principaux assureurs mondiaux, s'est engagé à ne plus investir dans le secteur charbonnier. Ce mouvement de désinvestissement fait boule de neige et pourrait dépasser 2600 milliards de dollars - des municipalités, des syndicats, des universités, des personnalités connues, des investisseurs institutionnels et des groupes confessionnels s'engageant à retirer leur mise du secteur des énergies fossiles.

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