Capitalisme à la chinoise

Pour le dernier acte de son mandat présidentiel, qui se termine avec le Congrès du Parti communiste s'ouvrant le 7 novembre, le Chinois Jiang Zemin veut que les hommes d'affaires entrent à la direction du Parti. Marx et Mao doivent se retourner dans leur tombe. Qui sont ces hommes d'affaires que le président Jiang veut séduire et comment travaillent-ils? Kenichi Ohmae nous en brosse le portrait.

Officiellement, la Chine est toujours communiste et pourtant les sociétés chinoises doivent faire face à une régulation moins forte que celles de Taiwan, de Corée, du Japon, d'Allemagne, de France et de Suède. Même comparée aux États-Unis, la Chine est un paradis capitaliste, tant que vous ne vous approchez pas trop du gouvernement central. Ainsi, les tarifs douaniers (fixés par le gouvernement central mais géré sur le plan local) sont faibles ou inexistants pour les sociétés qui utilisent à leur profit le système régional chinois des zones franches et les avantages fiscaux.

Rien de tout cela n'était possible jusqu'en 1992, date à laquelle la proclamation de Beijing, "un pays, deux systèmes", et la décision d'indexer la monnaie de la métropole, le renminbi, sur le dollar de Hong-Kong, ouvrit les portes aux investisseurs étrangers. L'argent s'est alors déversé à la bourse de Shenzhen et de Shanghai, tout comme les investissements directs pour construire des usines et des bureaux dans les zones franches.

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