Kapitalismus und Demokratie

WARSCHAU: Rund um die Welt ist die Demokratie auf dem Vorwärtsmarsch. Totalitäre und autoritäre Regimes sind hinweggeschwemmt worden; gegen die verbleibenden wächst der populäre Missmut. Aber es wäre zu früh, den Sieg zu erklären. Obgleich bereits der Kapitalismus triumphiert, können wir nicht von einem Triumph der Demokratie reden.

Die Verbindung zwischen Kapitalismus und Demokratie ist alles andere als zwingend. Repressive Regimes geben ihre Macht nicht freiwillig ab, und ihnen wird häufig von sowohl heimischen als auch ausländischen wirtschaftlichen Interessensgruppen Beihilfe geleistet, vor allem in Ländern in denen Bodenschätze wie Öl und Diamanten eine Rolle spielen. Vielleicht besteht die derzeit grösste Bedrohung der Freiheit in dieser unheilvollen Allianz zwischen Regierung und Geschäft, wie in Fujimoris Peru, Mugabes Simbabwe, Mahatiris Malaysien und im Russland der Oligarchen, in denen der Anschein demokratischer Prozesse erhalten wird, aber Staateskompetenzen zugunsten privater Interessen abgezweigt werden.

Kapitalismus schafft Reichtum, aber man kann sich nicht darauf verlassen dass Freiheit, Demokratie und Rechtssicherheit durch den Kapitalismus garantiert werden. Das Geschäft ist vom Profit motiviert; es ist nicht dazu geschaffen, universelle Prinzipien zu schützen. Sogar die Auferhaltung des Marktes selbst braucht mehr als Eigeninteresse: Marktteilnehmer konkurrieren um zu gewinnen, und wenn sie es könnten, würden sie den Wettbewerb selbst eliminieren. Daher können Freiheit, Demokratie und Rechtssicherheit nicht dem Schutz der Marktkräfte überlassen werden; wir benötigen institutionelle Garantien.

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