Dean Rohrer

Можно ли спасти евро?

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. Греческий финансовый кризис подверг сомнению само существование евро. При создании евро многие волновались по поводу его длительной жизнеспособности. Когда все пошло хорошо, об этих волнениях забыли. Но теперь возник вопрос: как произвести регулирование, если часть еврозоны была подвержена сильному неблагоприятному длительному шоку. Фиксация процентных ставок и делегирование монетарной политики Европейскому центральному банку ликвидировало два основных средства, при помощи которых национальные правительства стимулируют свои экономики, чтобы избежать рецессии. Что же могло бы их заменить?

Нобелевский лауреат Роберт Манделл изложил условия, при которых единая валюта могла бы работать. В то время Европа не соответствовала этим условиям; она не соответствует им и сейчас. Устранение юридических преград для перемещения работающих создало единый рабочий рынок, но языковые и культурные различия сделали невозможными перемещение рабочей силы в американском стиле.

Более того, у Европы нет способа, чтобы помочь странам, которые столкнулись с серьезными проблемами. Возьмите Испанию, у которой уровень безработицы 20% ‑ и более 40% среди молодых людей. Она имела финансовый профицит до кризиса; после кризиса ее дефицит увеличился более чем на 11% ВВП. Но, по законам Европейского Союза, Испания сейчас должна сократить свои расходы, что, по всей вероятности, усугубит безработицу. Так как развитие ее экономики замедляется, улучшения в ее финансовой позиции могут быть минимальными.

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