Kann Indien die Globalisierung überleben?

Indien ist nach der Unabhängigkeit von 1947 viele Jahre lang ein großes und armes Land geblieben. Die aufeinander folgenden Regierungen machten sich eine Politik zu eigen, die den Staat Wachstum und Entwicklung lenken ließ und gleichzeitig wirtschaftliche Interaktionen mit dem Rest der Welt stark einschränkte.

Die indische Bevölkerung ist weiter gewachsen und immer noch arm aber nicht so arm wie sie hätte sein können. Vor mehr als zehn Jahren wurde eine neuer Kurs eingeschlagen, der zu schnellerem Wachstum und weniger Armut führte. Der Außenhandel wurde liberalisiert und eine Vielzahl von Regierungskontrollen inländischer Investitionen wurden aufgehoben. Der Sinneswandel vieler Intellektueller und Entscheidungsträger zu Gunsten eines marktorientierteren Ansatzes, einschließlich einer stärkeren Integration in die Weltwirtschaft, war vielleicht von noch größerer Bedeutung.

Für Indiens Entwicklung bedeutet dies einen entscheidenden Durchbruch. Der Nobelpreisträger James Heckman weist in seiner jüngsten Analyse der schlechten Leistung der deutschen Wirtschaft nach der Wiedervereinigung darauf hin, dass neue Möglichkeiten in Technologie und Handel die Kosten für die Wahrung des Status Quo angehoben haben. ``Die Gewinner des Welthandels in der nächsten Generation werden die Länder sein, die flexibel mit ausgebildeten Arbeitskräften reagieren können'', so Heckmann

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