Les droits de douanes en faveur de l’environnement

Robert Collier

BERKELEY – Ces derniers mois, la Chine s’est trouvée au cœur du débat international sur le réchauffement climatique. Elle a supplanté les Etats-Unis au rang de plus grande source d’émission de gaz à effet de serre, et est devenue le chantre diplomatique des nations en développement lors des dernières négociations des Nations Unies sur le climat à Bali. La Chine est susceptible de devenir la cible d’une véritable guerre commerciale pouvant détruire – ou peut-être sauver – les chances de rapprocher les nations riches des nations pauvres dans la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique.

L’intérêt porté à la Chine s’est intensifié à la fin de l’année dernière, lorsque les nouvelles données de l’Agence internationale de l’énergie et d’autres organismes de recherche ont révélé qu’elle avait dépassé les Etats-Unis au classement des émetteurs de gaz à effet de serre – et plus menaçant encore, que ses émissions augmentaient plus rapidement que les nations riches ne diminuaient les leurs. Même si la Chine atteint ses objectifs en matière de conservation de l’énergie, ses émissions augmenteront d’environ 2,3 milliards de tonnes métriques durant les cinq prochaines années – soit bien plus que la réduction de 1,7 milliards de tonnes imposée par le Protocole de Kyoto aux 37 pays développés « de l’Annexe 1 », y compris aux Etats-Unis.

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