绿色关税能制止气候变化吗?

    伯克利--最近几个月来,中国在有关全球气候变暖的国际辩论中占据中心位置。中国已经超过美国成为全世界最大的温室气体排放国,而且成为最近联合国巴厘气候问题谈判中发展中国家外交的领头。现在中国也许会成为一场全面贸易战的目标,这一贸易战也许会摧毁或者挽救穷国和富国携手对付全球变暖的机会。

    去年底以来人们对中国更加关注。当时,国际原子能机构和其他研究机构的新数据表明中国已经超越美国成为温室气体的最大排放国家。而且更为不详的是,中国的排放增长远远超过所有富有国家降低排放的能力。即使中国实现其自身节能的目标,其排放在未来五年中还是将会增长大约23亿吨。这一数字要远远大于京都议定书规定包括美国在内的37个“附件一”发达国家的17亿吨的减排量。

    联合国有关环境变化的巴厘谈判并没有达成实质性的协议。在此之后,美国和欧洲的某些产业,特别是钢铁、水泥、玻璃、化工以及纸浆和造纸等行业忧心忡忡。它们担心新的气候协议将会使得它们在快速增长的中国竞争对手面前处于非常不利的地位。作为回应,美国国会正在采取行动建立一个贸易制裁体系,对其他主要温室气体排放国家实施苛刻的关税。具有讽刺意味的是,美国在采取行动减少自身排放之前就酝酿这一规划,引发他人指控其伪善和违反国际法并且威胁到发一场大规模贸易战。

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