Paul Lachine

Volatilité des marchés : la faute aux spéculateurs ?

CAMBRIDGE –Avec Nicolas Sarkozy à sa tête, le G20 donne cette année la priorité au combat contre la volatilité des prix agricoles. Les ministres de l'agriculture des Etats-membres se sont réunis récemment à Paris pour essayer d'y remédier. Ce n'est guère étonnant, car  les prix des produits alimentaires ont flambé au début de l'année, à l'image de ce qui s'était passé en 2008.

Partout dans le monde les consommateurs en pâtissent, notamment les plus pauvres pour lesquels l'alimentation représente une part importante du budget. Le mécontentement populaire engendré par la hausse des prix de l'alimentation a déstabilisé nombre de pays, notamment l'Egypte et la Tunisie. Les producteurs agricoles eux-mêmes préféreraient la stabilité des prix aux mouvements de yoyo des 5 dernières années.

Les efforts du G20 vont culminer avec le sommet de Cannes en novembre. Mais il faudra faire très attention quand seront discutées des mesures précises, car dans le passé celles destinées à réduire la volatilité des prix des matières premières ont souvent fait plus de mal que de bien.

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