¿Puede afianzarse la democracia en Ucrania?

Ciertamente, la diversidad de formas de gobierno que ha habido a lo largo de los siglos en Rusia, Polonia, Lituania y el Imperio Austrohúngaro, cuando gobernaban lo que es hoy Ucrania, hace difícil imaginar la creación de una "nación estado" clásica con una cultura dominante. Consideremos, por ejemplo, la solidez del idioma ruso y la fuerza de la Iglesia Ortodoxa (Patriarcado de Moscú) en Donetsk, o sea, en el este de Ucrania, y la solidez del idioma ucraniano y la influencia de la Iglesia Católica Griega ucraniana en Lviv, al oeste.

No obstante, España, India, Bélgica y Suiza son todas democracias consolidadas que no se ajustan al modelo clásico del estado nación. De hecho, estos cuatro países se caracterizan por la convivencia de identidades múltiples pero complementarias.

Estas identidades múltiples surgieron porque el estado democrático sirvió como "techo" que garantizaba iguales derechos a todos los ciudadanos, sin importar su religión, idioma o cultura. Esto contribuyó a desarrollar un fuerte sentido de identidad con la comunidad política de nivel nacional. Estos países profundamente pluralistas no son "estados nación" clásicos, sino más bien lo que yo llamo "naciones estado" democráticas.

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