La démocratie peut-elle prendre le pouvoir en Ukraine ?

Il est certain que la diversité des formes de gouvernance usitées au fil des sičcles par la Russie, la Pologne, la Lituanie et l'Autriche-Hongrie lorsqu'elles dirigeaient ce qui constitue désormais l'Ukraine rend la création d'un « État-nation » classique, avec une seule culture dominante, difficile ŕ imaginer. Prenez, par exemple, la vigueur de la langue russe et la force de l'église orthodoxe du patriarcat de Moscou ŕ Donetsk qui se trouve en Ukraine orientale, et la vigueur de la langue ukrainienne et l'influence de l'église catholique grecque ukrainienne ŕ Lviv ŕ l'ouest.

L'Espagne, l'Inde, la Belgique et la Suisse sont cependant toutes des démocraties consolidées qui ne répondent pas au modčle classique de l'État-nation. En effet, des identités multiples mais complémentaires constituent la norme dans ces quatre pays.

Ces identités multiples ont émergé car l'état démocratique offrait un « toit » de droits égaux sur la tęte de tous les citoyens, quelle que soit leur religion, leur langue ou leur culture. Ceci a contribué ŕ développer un fort sentiment d'identité avec la communauté politique sur tout le territoire. Ces pays profondément pluralistes ne sont pas des « États-nations » classiques, mais plutôt ce que j'appelle des « nations-États » démocratiques.

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