¿Puede Asia liberarse del FMI?

BERKELEY – Nunca hubo un cuestionamiento sobre el propósito final de la Iniciativa de Chiang Mai (CMI, tal su sigla en inglés), el sistema de respaldos financieros asiáticos creado en 2000 en esa ciudad tailandesa. Ese objetivo, por supuesto, es crear un Fondo Monetario Asiático; es decir, una alternativa regional para el Fondo Monetario Internacional, cuyos oficios durante la crisis financiera de 1997-98 no se han ni olvidado ni perdonado.

Hasta el momento, sin embargo, la CMI debería estar funcionando pero no lo está. Sus créditos y canjes nunca se han activado. La angustia posterior al colapso de Lehman Brothers habría sido una ocasión obvia. No obstante, y de forma reveladora, el Banco de Corea, el banco central más afectado, negoció un canje de moneda extranjera de 30.000 millones de dólares con la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos, no con sus socios del ASEAN+3.

Hoy, nos dicen, el ASEAN+3 ha logrado otro gran hito, la llamada Multilateralización de la Iniciativa de Chiang Mai (CMIM, según su sigla en inglés), destinada a convertir sus canjes y créditos bilaterales en un pool de reservas regionales. El objetivo se fijó en 2005, y el mes pasado los ministros de finanzas del ASEAN+3 ultimaron los detalles. Definieron la proporción de aportes a un pool de 120.000 millones de dólares, fijaron las facultades de endeudamiento y asignaron los porcentajes de votos.  

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