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Může být umělá inteligence etická?

PRINCETON – Počítačový program AlphaGo, speciálně sestavený k hraní hry go, vyvolal minulý měsíc šok mezi jejími fanoušky, když v turnaji složeném z pěti her zvítězil se skóre 4:1 nad Leem Sidolem, jedním ze špičkových profesionálních hráčů světa.

Proč, ptáte se možná, to má být novinka? Uběhlo už dvacet let od doby, kdy počítač Deep Blue od IBM porazil světového šampiona v šachu Garryho Kasparova, a všichni víme, že od té doby se počítače zdokonalily. Jenže Deep Blue vyhrál díky prosté výpočetní síle, neboť svých schopností využil k propočtení vyššího počtu tahů do hlubší úrovně, než dokáže i světový šampion. Go se hraje na mnohem větší hrací desce (19x19 pozic, oproti tomu v šachu je 8x8 políček) a možných tahů je víc než atomů ve vesmíru, takže bylo nepravděpodobné, že by lidskou bytost s intuitivním smyslem pro nejlepší tahy překonala hrubá výpočetní síla.

AlphaGo byl namísto toho sestaven tak, aby zvítězil tím, že odehraje obrovský počet her proti dalším programům a osvojí si strategie, které se ukážou jako úspěšné. Dalo by se říct, že AlphaGo prošel evolucí v nejlepšího hráče go na světě, přičemž během dvou let dokázal, co přírodnímu výběru trvalo miliony let.

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