Dean Rohrer

El ascenso de Hamás

CIUDAD DE GAZA – Hamás, el movimiento político militante que gobierna Gaza desde 2007, salió de la última ronda de combates con Israel con su posición regional considerablemente fortalecida. Pero al mismo tiempo, se enfrenta a dudas sobre su capacidad de aprovechar las nuevas oportunidades diplomáticas que obtuvo.

La enérgica respuesta de Hamás (que incluyó ataques con cohetes cerca de Tel Aviv y Jerusalén) a la operación militar de Israel en Gaza, ocurrida en noviembre pasado, demostró su compromiso con el principio palestino de firmeza. Además, tras los ocho días de enfrentamientos, el líder de Hamás, Jaled Meshal (que nunca antes había osado mostrarse abiertamente delante de Israel), regresó a Gaza desde Egipto después de un largo exilio. Su desfile triunfal por las calles de la ciudad reforzó la idea (tanto dentro como fuera de Gaza) de que la victoria había sido de Hamás.

Fuera de Gaza, el ascenso del islamismo político en los países de la Primavera Árabe (especialmente Egipto y Túnez) creó un entorno más favorable para Hamás. Un elemento crucial de las negociaciones mantenidas en El Cairo de las que surgió el alto el fuego con Israel es que hubo contacto diplomático directo y de alto nivel entre Egipto y Hamás; esto constituye un cambio fundamental respecto de la postura declaradamente contraria a Hamás del ex presidente egipcio Hosni Mubarak.

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