Corruption VANDERLEI ALMEIDA /Getty Images

¿Quién es la empresa?

CAMBRIDGE – ¿En nombre de quién hablan las asociaciones empresariales? Pues, a nombre de las empresas. Pero, ¿quién es la empresa?

Esta es una pregunta cada vez más urgente, puesto que aunque las empresas han cambiado de manera radical la forma en que se ven a sí mismas, las asociaciones empresariales todavía no lo han hecho. Y el desfase resultante le resta legitimidad al capitalismo en muchos países.

La visión tradicional de la empresa –que comparten tanto Karl Marx como Milton Friedman– es que consiste en una organización de propiedad de capitalistas (los accionistas), en cuyo nombre se la administra. La empresa contrata trabajadores y adquiere otros insumos a fin de maximizar los retornos de quienes aportan el dinero. Según Friedman, la responsabilidad social de la empresa es aumentar las ganancias. Cualquier objetivo que no beneficie directamente a los accionistas no es más que otro impuesto que distorsiona.

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