Bush pierde en el Tribunal Supremo y los Estados Unidos ganan

En dos sentencias dictadas esta semana el Tribunal Supremo de los Estados Unidos ha rechazado los desmesurados poderes de época de guerra reclamados por el Presidente Bush. En la causa de Yacer Hamdi, el tribunal desechó la pretensión del Gobierno de que las autoridades militares pudieran retener indefinidamente a un ciudadano de los EE.UU. como "combatiente enemigo" sin brindarle nunca la oportunidad de impugnar el fundamento de su detención ante una instancia decisoria neutral. Y en la demanda interpuesta por catorce ciudadanos extranjeros, el tribunal desechó el argumento del Gobierno de que, como la Base Naval de los EE.UU. en la bahía de Guantánamo es, nominalmente, de soberanía cubana, los tribunales americanos carecen de jurisdicción para admitir a trámite reclamaciones legales presentadas por personas que no tuvieron voz ni voto respecto del lugar en el que el ejército de los EE.UU. decidió retenerlos.

Aunque en ninguna de esas dos causas se hace referencia a ellos, es probable que el escandaloso trato recibido por los prisioneros iraquíes en Abu Ghraib y las revelaciones de que abogados de alto nivel del Gobierno prepararon memorandos confidenciales en los que se autorizaba la tortura influyeran de algún modo en el razonamiento del juez. El Gobierno dijo esencialmente: "Tened confianza en nosotros, que actuaremos con rectitud". Es evidente que el tribunal ha considerado que no se había granjeado dicha confianza.

Otra consideración tácita puede haber intervenido en la causa relativa a la bahía de Guantánamo, que ha sido objeto de considerable atención internacional. En los últimos años, una mayoría de los jueces del Tribunal Supremo han formulado una concepción multilateralista de la legislación americana que contrasta claramente con el unilateralismo del Gobierno de Bush.

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