Birmanie : la mauvaise politique du voisin indien

NEW DELHI – Au moment où une mise en scène d’élections ratifie les conséquences de trente années de régime militaire en Birmanie, la perspective de son voisin indien peut permettre d’expliquer pourquoi la communauté internationale continue d’accepter cette junte militaire au pouvoir depuis si longtemps.

La Birmanie faisait partie de l’empire britannique indien jusqu’en 1935 et les liens entre les deux pays sont restés forts après l’indépendance de la Birmanie en 1947. Une communauté d’hommes d’affaires indiens a prospéré dans les grandes villes birmanes et les affinités culturelles et politiques étaient bien établies. Le dirigeant nationaliste et premier Premier ministre de l’Inde Jawaharlal Nehru était un proche de l’héroïne nationaliste birmane Aung San, dont la fille, Aung San Suu Kyi, prix Nobel et chef de l’opposition, fit ses études à New Delhi.

Pendant de longues années, l’Inde a sans ambigüité pris le parti de la démocratie, de la liberté et des droits de l’homme en Birmanie – et de manière bien plus tangible que la rhétorique des critiques occidentaux du régime. Lorsque les généraux réprimèrent le soulèvement populaire en 1988, annulèrent les élections qui avaient donné une victoire écrasante à la Ligue Nationale pour la Démocratie de Aung San Suu Kyi en 1990, assassinèrent des étudiants et mirent sous les verrous les dirigeants nouvellement élus, le gouvernement indien a dans un premier temps réagi comme l’entendait la majorité des Indiens. L’Inde accordât l’asile aux étudiants en fuite et leur offrit une base pour leur mouvement de résistance (ainsi qu’une aide financière), et un soutien pour le journal et la radio qui se faisaient l’écho de la voix démocratique.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable

    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.