Etats du Golfe : un fossé grandissant

ISTANBOUL – Le président Barack Obama arrive en Arabie Saoudite à un moment critique pour le pays. Sa récente décision de rappeler à Washington son ambassadeur au Qatar a mis en lumière la gravité de la crise au sein du Conseil de coopération du golfe (CCG), composé des voisins directs du royaume saoudien. En effet, la région du golfe évolue vers un nouvel équilibre à la suite du rapprochement entre l’Arabie Saoudite et les Emirats arabes unis (EAU) et de la récente tentative d’isolation du Qatar.

Les EAU et le Bahreïn se sont joints à l’Arabie Saoudite dans cette rétrogradation des relations avec le Qatar. Une démarche inhabituelle, en regard de la tradition des états du Golfe consistant à toujours envisager les désaccords politiques comme une affaire familiale qui doit être gérée en toute discrétion. Oman garde ses distances par rapport à cette situation, tandis que le Koweït a tenté de se positionner en modérateur entre l’Arabie Saoudite et le Qatar.

Parmi les différents facteurs intervenant dans la décision de l’Arabie Saoudite vis-à-vis du Qatar : l’instauration d’une interdiction faite aux intellectuels saoudiens d’écrire pour des journaux qataris ; le soutien du Qatar aux Frères musulmans (en Egypte et ailleurs); les discours du théologien islamique Yusuf al-Qardawi et la politique de l’information de la chaine Al Jazeera, financée par le Qatar, depuis le Printemps arabe; et le crédit accordé aux rumeurs qui prétendent que le Qatar accueille des institutions occidentales dans l’intention d’orchestrer un coup d’état en Arabie Saoudite.

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