TTIP Tobias Schwarz/Getty Images

Redonner son ambition au TTIP

MADRID – Il y a trois ans, les États-Unis et l’Union européenne amorçaient les négociations autour du Partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d’investissement (TTIP), et formulaient la promesse de franchir la ligne d’arrivée des négociations avec « un seul plein d’essence ». Or, les discussions s’opèrent actuellement sur la réserve de carburant, à l’heure où certaines critiques gagnent les deux camps, et où la fenêtre d’opportunité politique propice à un accord se referme rapidement.

Les obstacles apparus en travers des négociations sur le TTIP ne se limitent pas à l’accord lui-même. Ils sont le reflet d’une plus large tendance – laquelle exige de repenser fondamentalement l’approche dominante appliquée aux accords sur le commerce et le libre-échange.

Ce n’est un secret pour personne, l’opposition aux accords de ce type a gagné en puissance ces dernières années. Aux États-Unis, les deux candidats probables à la présidence – la démocrate Hillary Clinton et le républicain Donald Trump – ont adopté des points de vue d’opposition au libre-échange, Trump préconisant une approche mercantiliste jamais observée dans le débat politique américain depuis l’entre-deux-guerres. Par ailleurs, il semble de moins en moins probable que le Partenariat transpacifique, négocié par les États-Unis auprès de 11 pays de la ceinture du Pacifique, reçoive l’approbation du Congrès.

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