Percorsi verso l'energia sostenibile

NEW YORK – La scommessa più sicura sul futuro dell'energia è il riconoscimento della necessità di ridurre le emissioni di carbonio. Oggigiorno, circa l'80% dell'energia primaria mondiale si basa sul carbonio: carbone, petrolio e gas. Il nostro obiettivo dovrà essere quello di passare a un'energia a zero o a basso contenuto di carbonio entro la metà del secolo. Il grande dilemma è come e quando realizzarlo.

Quando si parla di energia primaria a basse emissioni di carbonio, tre sono le opzioni possibili: energia rinnovabile, ad esempio, eolica, solare, geotermica, idroelettrica e da biomasse; energia nucleare; e la cattura e sequestro del carbonio, che prevede l'utilizzo di combustibili fossili per produrre energia, intrappolando le emissioni di CO2 prodotte e immagazzinando il carbonio sottoterra con metodi sicuri.

Sono, altresì, tre le ragioni urgenti per cui il mondo dovrebbe optare per un'energia a basse emissioni di carbonio. In primo luogo, gli elevati livelli di CO2 stanno dando luogo a un'acidificazione degli oceani. Continuando di questo passo, finiremo per distruggere una grande quantità di vita marina, danneggiando gravemente le catene alimentari fondamentali per la nostra sopravvivenza.

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