Shah Marai/AFP/Getty Images

Menuju Afghanistan yang Mandiri

KABUL – Konferensi Brussels tentang Afghanistan (Brussels Conference on Afghanistan) pekan ini menandai peluang penting pembangunan roadmap masa depan Afghanistan. Meski jalur yang dirintis Afghanistan saat ini sudah membuahkan hasil, jalan menuju kemakmuran masih panjang, terutama karena kelemahan dalam penyaluran bantuan dan tata kelola pemerintahan dalam negeri.

Sejak Presiden Ashraf Ghani terpilih di tahun 2014, aliran bantuan ke Afghanistan berkurang secara signifikan. Bantuan yang diterima tidak disalurkan melalui tindakan yang mendukung pembangunan negara, yang mana donor-donor asing umumnya menghindari (bypassing) pemerintah Afghanistan, dengan tujuan membiayai proyek-proyek terpisah. Sejak 2002 hingga 2010, sekitar 82% dari dana bantuan sebanyak 56 miliar dolar AS yang dikucurkan ke Afghanistan dihabiskan melalui lembaga non-pemerintah.

Pendekatan tersebut memiliki dasar pembenar. Para donor meyakini bahwa pemerintah Afghanistan terlampau lemah dan korup untuk memakai dana bantuan secara efektif. Anggapan mereka tidak sepenuhnya salah: korupsi dan nepotisme masih merajalela di negara tersebut.

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